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[Page 143]
      Pitt, Robert, son of William Pitt, merchant, (and Pary Pitt, his wife,) of Bristol, England, who made his will May 13, 1622, which was proved Feb. 4, 1624, in Bristol. Robert Pitt and his two brothers, Henry and Thomas, came to Virginia about 1640. Robert was a prominent merchant, burgess for Isle of Wight in 1649, 1652, 1654 (in which year he is mentioned as lieutenant-colonel) and 1659, 1660 (in which year he is mentioned as colonel). He was a member of the council in 1673. He married Martha Lear, sister of Col. John Lear, of the Virginia council. His will, dated June 6, 1672, was proved in Isle of Wight county, June 9, 1674.

[Page 143]
      Wormeley, Ralph, the second Ralph to be councillor, was a son of Ralph Wormeley, esq., burgess and councillor, and of Agatha Eltonhead, who married (first) Luke Stubbins, of Northampton county, (second) Ralph Wormeley, and (third) Sir Henry Chicheley. He was born in 1650; matriculated, July 4, 1665, at Oriel College, Oxford; was a member of the house of burgesses in 1674; appointed member of the council in 1677; secretary of state in 1693, and became in the same year president of the council. He lived in such state at his residence, "Rosegill," on the Rappahannock river, and had such influence in affairs, that he was called the greatest man in "Virginia." He married (first) Catherine, widow of Colonel Peter Jenings and daughter of Sir Thomas Lunsford, by whom he had two daughters — Elizabeth, who married John Lomas, and Catherine, who married Gawin Corbin. He married (second) Elizabeth Armistead, daughter of Colonel John Armistead, of Gloucester county, and had several sons and daughters, one of whom was John Wormeley, who was grandfather of Ralph Wormeley, the third councillor of the name (q. v.). "Rosegill," his beautiful home on the Rappahannock, was the residence at different times of two of the governors of Virginia — Sir Henry Chicheley, who married his mother, and Lord Howard, of Effingham, who preferred living here to residing at Jamestown. Colonel Wormeley died December 5, 1703.

[Pages 143-144]
      Parke, Daniel, Jr., was the only son of Councillor Daniel Park I., and was born in 1669. He was probably educated in England, but was back in Virginia soon after reaching manhood, and in 1692 was appointed a member of the council. He was a favorite of Gov. Andros, who gave him, besides the office of councillor, those of collector and naval officer of lower James river, escheator for the district between York and James and colonel of militia. Much of the record which has come to us of Col. Parke certainly presents him in a most unfavorable light, but it must be remembered that it is the product of pens bitterly opposed to him in the politics of the period. Commissary Blair has left us a picture of him anything but attractive, in which he is presented as a boaster and swaggerer who does not hesitate to take advantage over those who are defenceless, but who will not meet a formidable adversary face to face. Such was his behavior toward Gov. Nicholson, by Blair's account, and against his, the commissary's wife, the former of whom he insulted but contrived to avoid the duel, and the latter be bullied in church. Notwithstanding all this there can be no doubt that Parke was a man of courage and ability. He left Virginia in 1697, and in 1701 served a campaign in Flanders with Lord Arran, the Duke of Ormond's brother, and was in every action. For his efficiency he was made a colonel and "promised the first old regiment that shall fall." The Duke of Marlborough made him one of his aides and he behaved with such distinction at the battle of Blenheim that the Duke selected him to bear the news of the great victory to Queen Anne. It was at that time the custom in England to give the bearers of the first news of a victory a gratuity of £500, but Col. Parke begged that instead he might have the Queen's picture. His gallantry, fine appearance and handsome bearing pleased queen Anne, and being patronized by the Duke he was in April 25, 1704, appointed governor of the Leeward Island. Here the government had been very lax and the settlers were many of them lawless and desperate characters, for the West Indies had been the stronghold of the pirates. Parke attempted to introduce some reforms and incurred the resentment of the people. He would not yield and place his dependence upon a small military force at his command. A violent insurrection broke out at Antigua in 1710 and Parke made a gallant resistance, killing with his own hand Capt. John Piggott, one of the leaders of the insurrection. He was finally overpowered by numbers and the mob roused to fury dragged him through the streets till he was left expiring in the scorching sun. They broke open his storehouse and plundered his residence and other property to the amount of £5,000 sterling. Col. Daniel Parke married Jane, daughter of Col. Philip Ludwell, and left two daughters — Frances, who married Col. John Custis, of Arlington, Northampton county, and Lucy, who married Col. William Byrd, of Westover. He was certainly lacking in morality, but this was too often the characteristic of the men of fashion of his day. His portrait, showing Queen Anne's miniature hanging by a ribbon from his neck, is to be seen at Brandon, on James river.

[Page 144]
      Hartwell, Henry, was clerk of the council in 1677 and other years. On June 10, 1691, Gov. Nicholson wrote to England that there were vacancies in the council and recommended for one place Henry Hartwell, a member of the house of burgesses. The governor seems to have given him a pro tempore appointment at once, for he was present in council July 5, 1692. On March 2, 1693-94 the committee for trade and plantations agreed to move the King in council that Col. Henry Hartwell be added to the council in Virginia at the recommendation of the bishop of London, and on July 18, 1694, Gov. Andros wrote that Col Hartwell had been accordingly sworn. He left Virginia for England in June, 1695, and never returned, but for some time his named was retained on the roll of the council. In 1699 he, with the Rev. James Blair and Edward Chilton, prepared an account of the colony which was published under the title of "The Present State of Virginia." Hartwell became a resident of London and died there in 1699. His brother, William Hartwell, was captain of Sir William Berkeley's body guard during Bacon's rebellion, and through him in female lines the family is still represented in Virginia.

[Pages 144-145]
      Lightfoot, John, was a son of John Lightfoot, barrister-at-law, of Northampton county, England, and with his brother Philip, came to Virginia and settled in Gloucester county. On June 10, 1670, Lightfoot received the King's grant as auditor-general of Virginia, in place of Thomas Stegge, then lately deceased. On Dec. 17, 1671, his majesty, having learned that Gov. Berkeley had appointed Digges to the place prior to his own letters patent to Lightfoot, and that Digges was "a person every way fit for said office," directed Berkeley to suspend Lightfoot and substitute Digges. Moryson in a letter to Lord Arlington said that Berkeley's commission to Digges "bore date long before Captain Lightfoot did so much as sue for his," and objects to Lightfoot on the grounds that at the time when he received his commission he was not a member of the council or a resident of Virginia, "so that if he hath the place he must be forced to execute it by deputy, which is contrary to law," and that he was reported to have "many great debts upon him, one no less than a statute of £700." In 1681 reference is made to Lightfoot as having married Anne, daughter of Thomas Goodrich, lieutenant-general in Bacon's rebellion, and in 1692 we are told that John Lightfoot, "lately come into the country," was a councillor. It is probable that he had lately returned from a visit to England. On Sept. 5, 1695, the lords justices, on recommendation of the committee of trades and plantations, directed that John Lightfoot be added to the Virginia council. In 1699 he was collector for the country between James and York rivers, and in 1701 voted with other councillors for the recall of Nicholson. He is also mentioned as having been commander-in-chief of King and Queen county. He died May 28, 1707, leaving issue.

[Pages 145-146]
      Ludwell, Philip, was the son of Thomas Ludwell, of Bruton, in Somersetshire, England, who was church warden of the parish in 1636, and steward of Sexey Hospital in Bruton. Thomas Ludwell died at Discoe, in the parish of Bruton, and was buried July 7, 1637. Philip Ludwell's mother was Jane Cottington, a relative of Sir William Berkeley, and only daughter of James Cottington, of Discoe, a brother of Philip, Lord Cottington. Philip Ludwell, who belonged to a royalist family, was born about 1638,and probably came to Virginia about 1660 to join his brother Thomas, who was then secretary of state. He was captain of the James City county militia in 1667, and on March 5, 1675, took the oath as a councillor of state. During the absence of his brother Thomas in London, at this time, he was acting secretary of state for two years (1675-1777). During Bacon's rebellion (1676) he was one of the most efficient supporters of Gov. Berkeley. He showed distinguished courage and discretion in capturing an expedition under Giles Bland sent to Northampton county to siege the governor. After Berkeley's death, in 1677, Ludwell married his widow and became the head of the "Green Spring Faction," as it was called, comprised of friends of the late governor. From being the supporters of government Ludwell and Beverley became the champions of the rights of the general assembly and the people. Gov. Jeffreys had Ludwell excluded from the council. Jeffreys died and Lord Thomas Culpeper came over to Virginia in 1681. He was a cousin of Ludwell's wife, Lady Berkeley, whose maiden name was Frances Culpeper, and at the request of the whole council he restored Ludwell to his seat in that body. When Lord Howard, of Effingham, came as governor to Virginia in 1686 he tried to increase the power of the executive and instituted a fee for the use of the state seal to land grants. He was opposed by Ludwell and the fee was ordered to be discontinued, but he again lost his place in council. The dismissal only served to increase Ludwell's popularity, and the assembly sent him to England as their agent to petition for relief. While he was in attendance at the privy council King William came to the throne and Ludwell was successful in obtaining a favorable decision on most of the questions involved. He was again restored to the council and on may 7, 1691, the house of burgesses voted him the public thanks and presented him with £250. Before this, on Dec. 5, 1689, the lords proprietors of Carolina appointed him governor of North Carolina, and in 1693 of both North and South Carolina. He held office till 1694, when, tired of the quarrels of that turbulent county, he resigned. He continued in the council in Virginia and in 1690-92 was agent for the Culpepers in the Northern Neck. In 1693 he was one of the first board of visitors of William and Mary College. He heired from his brother Thomas, "Rich Neck," near Williamsburg, but his chief residence was at "Green Spring," which he obtained by his marriage with Lady Berkeley. About 1700, leaving his estates in the hands of his son Philip, he went to England, where he was living as late as 1711. Col. Philip Ludwell married, in or before 1677 (first) Lucy, widow of Col. William Bernard, and before that of Maj. Lewis Burwell, and daughter of Capt. Robert Higginson; (second) Lady Frances (Culpeper) Berkeley. His son Philip (by his first marriage) and his grandson Philip were both members of the council.

[Page 146]
      Johnson, Richard, lived in New Kent county in 1679, when he was styled "Captain Richard Johnson," and the following year was a justice and captain of horse there. On June 10, 1691, Gov. Nicholson wrote to England that there were vacancies in the council and recommended for one of the places Lieut.-Col. Richard Johnson, a member of the house of burgesses. He was not appointed, however, until 1696, when Andros gave him a seat in that body and he is recorded as being present on April 20 of that year. His death probably occurred in 1698, his will having been made then, on April 8. Col. Johnson came from Bilsby, county Lincoln, England. By a wife in England he had a daughter Judith, who married Sir Hardoff Wastnays. By a wife in Virginia he had several sons, one of whom was ancestor of the distinguished Virginia lawyer, Chapman Johnson.

[Page 146]
      Harrison, Benjamin, of "Wakefield," Surry county, a son of Benjamin Harrison, of the same place, was born Sept. 20, 1645. He was a minor at the time of his father's death, and in 1663, was under the guardianship of Capt. Thomas Flood, of Surry. On June 15, 1677, his name appears for the first time as a justice and he continued for many years to be a member of the county court. On June 16, 1679, he took the oath as sheriff. He was a member of the house of burgesses in 1681, 1692, 1696, 1697 and 1698, and in the latter year was promoted to the council, of which he was a regular attendant until his death. In the charter of William and Mary College, 1692. Benjamin Harrison was appointed one of the first trustees. Gov. Nicholson was not on friendly terms with Harrison and his friends and wrote to the lords of trades and plantations in 1703 that th family of Harrisons had endeavored to engross the major part of the land on the south side of Blackwater Swamp, but that, for his majesty's interest, he had put a stop to their proceedings. Col. Harrison died Jan. 30, 1712-13.

[Page 146]
      Jenings, Edmund, president of the council and acting governor (q. v.).

[Pages 146-147]
      Digges, Dudley, of York county, son of Edward Digges, governor of Virginia, was born about 1665. Sometime in 1698 Gov. Andros appointed him a member of the council, but for some reason he was not continued in office by Gov. Nicholson, and on Jan. 4, 1699-1700, the lords of trade and plantations wrote to Nicholson that they approved of his action in admitting Col. Digges. Whatever the objection may have been it was removed in a few years, for on Feb. 23, 1703-04, the Queen appointed Col. Dudley Digges to the council, as had been recommended by Gov. Nicholson. He was also included in a new commission dated Feb. 23, 1709-10. In 1705 Digges was appointed auditor and surveyor-general of Virginia, offices which he held until his death, Jan. 18, 1710-11.

[Page 147]
      Carter, Robert, president of the council and acting governor of Virginia (q. v.).

[Page 147]
      Custis, John, son of Maj-Gen. John Custis, of "Arlington," Northampton county, was born in 1653. He was a justice of Northampton in 1680, a member of the house of burgesses from that county in 1685, 1692, 1696, and in 1699, when he is styled "Colonel John Custis," he was escheator, naval officer and receiver of Virginia for the eastern shore. He was appointed to the council Dec. 14, 1699,and later on Oct. 15, 1705. He was a constant attendant at the sessions during the remainder of his life, his name appearing for the last time on Oct. 15, 1705. He was a constant attendant at the sessions during the remainder of his life, his name appearing for the last time on Oct. 15, 1712, just three months before his death. He died January 26, 1713, and was buried at "Wilsonia," Northampton county.

[Page 147]
      Page, Matthew, of "Rosewell," Gloucester county, was a son of Col. John Page, and was born in 1659. He was a member of the house of burgesses and a charter trustee of William and Mary College in 1692, and escheator for the district between the York and Rappahannock rivers from 1699 to 1702. he was appointed to the council in 1700, probably to fill a vacancy, and the appointment confirmed in 1702 by the Queen. He remained a member until his death in 1703. He married Mary Mann, of Gloucester county, Virginia.

[Page 147]
      Burwell, Lewis, of "Carter's Creek," Gloucester, and of "King's Creek," York, was a son of Maj. Lewis Burwell and Lucy Higginson, his wife. He was a justice of Gloucester in 1680 and a trustee of William and Mary College in 1692. He was probably appointed to the council by the governor in 1700. Such appointments were always provision and had to be ratified by the English authorities and on Dec. 4, 1700, the lords of trade wrote to Gov. Nicholson that he had been appointed to the council. On Oct. 13, 1701, Maj. Burwell wrote to the lords of trade that he had received his majesty's command requiring his service as one of the council of the colony. It was his very great misfortune that upon this occasion it was not in his power to pay the respect of duty and obedience which he had always been ambitions to do, and therefore he prayed their lordships' intercession with his majesty not to insist upon his commands. Sickness and lameness, with which he was very often afflicted, made it impossible for him to attend. Accordingly, on may 7, 1702, the lords of trade recommended to the Queen that Lewis Burwell be discharged from the council, which was done. It was with one of this Maj. Burwell's daughters that Gov. Nicholson became infatuated, as Dr. Blair reports. He died Dec. 19, 1710. He married (first) Abigail Smith, niece of Hon. Nathaniel Bacon, Esq., and (second) Martha, widow of Col. William Cole, formerly secretary of state, and daughter of Councillor Col. John Lear.

[Pages 147-148]
      Ludwell, Philip, Jr., of Greenspring," James City county, was a son of the Philip Ludwell. who was so long a prominent figure in the colony, and was born at "Carter's Creek," Gloucester county, Feb. 4, 1672. His father's influence and large estate brought the son into public life at an early age and he was chosen speaker of the house of burgesses in 1695, being probably the most youthful occupant of that chair. On May 14, 1702, on the recommendation of the governor, the Queen appointed him a member of the council. Though recommended by Nicholson, Ludwell was one of the party who opposed him and finally succeeded in having him removed from office. Ludwell's official life appears to have continued to run smoothly, he sat regularly at the meetings of the council, was appointed one of the trustees of the new college at Williamsburg in 1706, and 1709 was made a commissioner on the part of Virginia for establishing the boundary line with North Carolina. In 1711 he was appointed auditor of Virginia by Gov. Spotswood, who seems at first to have been favorably impressed with him. The good will between them did not last, however. The Ludwells, always on the side of the people, did not hesitate to oppose the governor in what they consider usurpations of the popular rights, and accordingly, when the clash between the house of burgesses and Spotswood occurred, the colonel sided with the former. So highly was the governor incensed that he suspended Ludwell from the office of auditor and accused him of mismanagement of the finances. There was a considerable dispute over this order, but the English authorities finally upheld Spotswood and appointed another in Ludwell's place. This did not, however, discourage that gentleman in his resistence to the governor, and in 1718 he sided with Commissary Blair in his dispute with Spotswood relative to the appointment of ministers to the Virginia churches. In this matter they were entirely successful in their opposition to him, though this and other disputes continued for sometime. These differences were finally composed in 1720, after which date there is scarcely any record of Ludwell's public life save the reports of his constant attendance at the council. He died Jan. 11, 1726-27.

[Page 148]
      Quarry, Robert, was appointed a member of the council in the commission of Oct. 16, 1702, and on Dec. 17, wrote the lords of trade that he had arrived in the colony about the middle of October. He made a visit to England the following year, but was again in Virginia in Sept. 1703, and in October of the same year was appointed surveyor-general of the customs in America, in which office he played an active part in the affairs of the colony. Like his predecessors in this office, he was so frequently absent in England that he can hardly be said to have been a citizen of Virginia at all. He sat as councillor in 1707 and 1709-10, and, under a new commission, was present and took the oaths as councillor, July 21, 1712. The colonial records contain no further information concerning him.

[Pages 148-149]
      Duke, Henry, of James City county, was a justice of that county in 1680, sheriff in 1699 and member of the house of burgesses in 1692, 1696, 1699, 1700, and probably in the following year. In 1700 he was a member of the committee appointed to review the laws, and on May 14, 1702, was appointed by the Queen, a member of the council. He continued a member and a regular attendant at the sessions of that body until his death, the last record of his attendance being in 1713. It appears that he was also commander of the militia in James City county in 1710, for on Aug. 24 of that year, Gov. Spotswood made a memorandum, in the receipt of a letter from Col. Duke, giving an account of some negroes going away with arms directing him, in case of a like happening, to raise the militia and go in pursuit. On Jan. 27, 1713, Spotswood wrote to the English authorities that there was a vacancy in the council on account of the death of Henry Duke, which had occurred during the winter.

[Page 149]
      Bassett, William, of "Eltham," New Kent county, was a son of Capt. William Bassett of the same county and was born in 1670. He was a member of the house of burgesses from New Kent in 1692, 1696, 1702 and probably in the intervening years. On May 22, 1702, Edmund Jenings and John Lightfoot certified that Col. William Bassett, who was elected burgess for New Kent, "was tendered the oaths for burgess and returned the following anser, 'I have already in several qualifications testified y allegiance to King William's government by taking the oaths &c.; but I am now informed, and fully satisfied that he is dead, and therefore I think myself obliged both in prudence and concience to decline taking ye oaths to him at this time.'" On May 14, 1702, the Queen appointed him a member of the council of Virginia and he was present at sessions of that body until April 15, 1708. Within a few years Basset desired to retire from the council and wrote to England to that effect, stating that neither his health nor his private affairs would permit him to attend. This, after some delay, was granted, but Bassett seems to have made too high a record as an official to be allowed to remain long in retirement, and in 1711,he was returned to the council, but declined to accept as he was not restored to his former position in that body. On March 11, 1714-15, he was again included in a commission to the councillors and this time took his seat, attending regularly the sessions until his death in 1723.

[Page 149]
      Smith, John, of Gloucester county, a son of Col. Lawrence Smith of the same place, was appointed to the council in the spring of 1704 by Gov. Nicholson, but in the next commission to the council the names of Smith and John Lewis were omitted and they made application for restoration to the lords of trade. In Dec., 1705, the board ordered that Mr. Smith be reinstated, taking the place of William Byrd deceased, and the following year he took the oaths of office. He was among those councillors who opposed Gov. Spotswood and whom the latter petitioned the English authorities to have removed in 1718, a petition not granted. Besides being in the council, Smith was appointed by Nicholson to be quartermaster general of Virginia in 1704-05, and in 1707, he was made commander-in-chief of the militia in King and Queen county in place of Col. John Lightfoot deceased. His death occurred sometime prior to March, 1719-20. He married Arabella Cox, a descendant of William Strachey, secretary to Lord Delaware in 1611.

[Pages 149-150]
      Lewis, John, Sr., of "Warner Hall," Gloucester county, was a son of John and Isabella Lewis of the same county and was born Nov. 30, 1699. Towards the close of Gov. Nicholson's administration, probably in the spring of 1704, he was appointed in the council, but in some way his name was omitted from the commission to that body under Nicholson's successor. Lewis and John Smith, who was in the same case, wrote to the lords of trade expressing surprise that they should have been left out as they were sensible of never having acted contrary to their duty to the Queen, her representatives or the welfare of the colony. The enemies of Nicholson strove to keep them excluded, but as nothing could be urged against them, they were successful in their efforts to be admitted and on June 26, 1707, they were finally sworn as members. Col. Lewis was a regular attendant at the sessions of the council until his death. On Sept. 2, 1707, he was appointed commander of King and Queen county. He died Nov. 14, 1725. He married Elizabeth Warner, daughter of Col. Augustine Warner and Mildred Reade, daughter of Col. George Reade, and left issue.

[Page 150]
      Churchill, William, of "Bushy Park" and "Wilton," Middlesex county, was born in Oxfordshire, England about 1650 and came to Virginia prior to 1687, when he was a justice of Middlesex, He became a man of large wealth and prominence in the colony and owned two estates in his county, entirely across which his lands were stated to extend. He was a member of the house of burgesses for Middlesex in 1704 and probably other years, and on April 20, 1705, was appointed by the English government a member of the council. He contained a regular attendant until his death in 1710. He married Elizabeth Armistead, daughter of Col. John Armistead, and widow of Ralph Wormeley, secretary of state, and left issue.

[Page 150]
      Cocke, Dr. William, a native of Suffolk, England, was born in 1671, matriculated in Queen's College, Cambridge, in 1688, and was elected fellow of the college in 1694. The exact date of his immigration to Virginia does not appear, but in the latter part of 1711 or early in 1712, upon the resignation of Edmund Jenings, he was appointed secretary of state of Virginia. There seems to have been some arrangement between Jenings and Cocke in regard to the profits of the office and there was some little delay before the latter came into full possession of the place. Gov. Spotswood wrote on Feb. 11, 1712-13 to the authorities in England that there was a vacancy in the council and recommended, as a fit person to fill it "the gentleman who was last year by her majesty's favor promoted to the office of Secretary, Mr. William Cocke." ON July 23, 1713, the board of trade and plantations made a representation to the Queen recommending Secretary Cocke for the council, and on Aug. 18 the appointment was made. Dr. Cocke was present at the various sessions of the council until the spring of 1716, when he made a visit to England. He was a bearer on that occasion of a letter from Gov. Spotswood, in which he gives the highest praise to Cocke and recommends him to the Queen's favor. Dr. Cocke returned to Virginia prior to March 11, 1718, on which date he was present in council. He died Oct. 20, 1720. He married Elizabeth, sister of the celebrated naturalist Mark Catesby, and left descendants.

[Pages 150-151]
      Berkeley, Edmund, of Middlesex county, was a son of Edmund and Mary Berkeley and was born sometime prior to 1674. On July 22, 1713, the board of trade and plantations made a representation to the Queen, recommending him for appointment to the council, and on Aug. 8, the appointment was made. there seems to have been a vigorous dispute between him and Gov. Spotswood regarding precedence in the council, Berkeley claiming that he should take precedence over the councillors appointed by the governor after the date of his letter from the Queen, but sworn before him. The dispute lasted for some time, Berkeley in the meantime refusing to take his seat, but at length a new commission arrived in March, 1714-15, in which his name was again included and he seems after this to have been a regular attendant until his death in 1718, at his residence "Barn Elms" in Middlesex county. He married Lucy, daughter of Maj. Lewis Burwell and his wife Abigail Smith descended from the illustrious house of the Bacons in England.

[Page 151]
      Byrd, William, of Westover, a son of Councillor William Byrd, of the same place, was born March 28, 1674. He may truly be said to have been born under a lucky star, for his father had already made the name of Byrd distinguished in Virginia, and bequeathed to the son, besides worldly wealth and position, many admirable gifts of character and mind. He was sent to England as a mere lad for his education and placed under the direction of Sir Robert Southwell. Later he read law in the Middle Temple, and, in recognition of his gifts and scholarship, was made a fellow of the Royal Society of Great Britain. A trip to the continent and a visit to the court of France served as finishing touches to this education before his return to Virginia. Soon after reaching the colony, he was made a burgess and, in Oct., 1696, was sent as the official agent of that body to England, where he remained at least as late as 1702, though the date of his visit's termination is not definitely known. Upon his return, he entered eagerly into the affairs of the colony and soon came to be looked upon as the leading man of his time. In Sept., 1705, Gov. Nott, upon the advice of the council, appointed him receiver general of Virginia to fill the vacancy occasioned by the death of his father, and in December, of the same year he succeeded to his father's place in the council. In the conflict that arose between the assembly and Gov. Spotswood, Col. Byrd took part with the former, and the governor's displeasure was further increased by a long visit Byrd made in England. He consequently wrote to England advising the authorities there to remove Byrd and a number of his other enemies from the council. In the case of Byrd there was a long dispute with varying success, but in the end he retained his seat. This quarrel was finally ended and Byrd and Spotswood became cordial friends after the latter's retirement from public life. In 1727, Byrd was appointed by Gov. Gooch, one of the commission to confer with North Carolina upon the boundary line between the two colonies. The Virginia commission consisted of Col. Byrd, Richard Fitzwilliam and William Dandridge. These gentlemen not only succeeded in fixing the position of the line but accompanied the engineers that drew it on their difficult and painful survey through the wilderness. Col. Byrd kept a diary of the expedition which has been preserved for us, and which, along with other similar writings by him, afford a vivid picture of colonial life in that period. Col. Byrd built the famous brick mansion which stands to this day at Westover, and collected the largest library of the day in America. This library boasted 3,625 volumes, among which was the "Records of the London Company," which the Earl of Southampton caused to be made, and which Byrd's father had purchased in London. Col. Byrd's death occurred Aug. 26, 1744, and he was buried in the garden at Westover.
      It was fit that a man of his eminent character should have been founder of the city of Richmond, the present capital of Virginia.

[Pages 151-152]
      Porteus, Robert, of "New Bottle," Gloucester county, was born in 1679. His father was Edward Porteus of the same county, who, in 1693, was recommended by the governor as one of the "gentlemen of estate and standing" suitable for appointment to the council. He was, however, never given the office. Robert Porteus was appointed sheriff of Gloucester in 1709, but declined the office. On March 1, 1713, he was sworn as member of the council and remained a member until 1719, when he went to England, dying at Ripon, Yorkshire, August 8, 1758 He was the father of Beilby Porteus, Bishop of London.

[Page 152]
      Harrison, Nathaniel, of "Wakefield," Surry county, was a son of Councillor Benjamin Harrison and was born in Surry county, Aug. 8, 1677. He was, for a number of years a very prominent and influential figure in the colony. Beginning his public life as a justice of Surry in 1698, he was later a member of the house of burgesses for that county from 1700 to 1706 inclusive. In 1702, he was naval officer for the upper district of James river; in 1704, he was appointed by the commissioners of the prize office in England, the agent for prizes in Virginia; in 1710, appointed by Spotswood, naval officer and receiver of Virginia duties; and on April 10 of the same year was made one of the commissioners on the part of Virginia to settle, with North Carolina, the question of their boundary. On Jan. 9, 1713-14, he became a councillor on Spotswood's appointment, this being confirmed by the English authorities the following year. On Dec. 8, 1715, he was appointed county lieutenant of Surry and Prince George, and appears at this time to have been receiver general of Virginia, the deputy in Virginia for the auditor and receiver general of all the colonies, who lived in England. He was a regular attendant at sessions of the council until his death, Nov. 30, 1727. He married Mary Cary, daughter of John Cary, merchant of London, by his wife Jane, daughter of Col. John Flood, of Surry county, Virginia, and had issue.

[Page 152]
      Page, Mann, of "Rosewell," Gloucester county, was a son of Matthew Page of the same place and was born in 1691. His grandson, Gov. Page, stated that he was educated at Eaton, and Foster's "Oxford Matriculations" shows that he was entered at St. John's College at that university in July 1709. Early in 1714, a vacancy occurring in the council, Gov. Spotswood appointed him a member of that body, and on March 11, 1714-15, the English government confirmed his appointment. Page was a regular attendant at the sessions of the council until his death. Mann Page was the builder of the present house at "Rosewell," which was begun in 1725 and barely completed at the time of his death, Jan. 24, 1730. He was married Judith, daughter of Secretary Ralph Wormeley, and had issue.

[Page 152]
      Digges, Cole, of "Bellfield," York county, was a son of Councillor Dudley Digges of the same place and was born in 1692. He was a member of the house of burgesses for York in 1718 and probably other years, and was first mentioned in 1718 as a candidate for the council, being recommended for that body by Gov. Spotswood in his letter of Sept. 17 of that year. There was some delay in the matter of his appointment due to politics but, in Sept., 1720, he finally received his commission and was sworn to office. He remained a member, and was a frequent attendant for many years, the last record of his appearance being on Sept. 4, 1744, in which year his death occurred. He married Elizabeth Power, daughter of Dr. Henry Power, son of John Power, "a Spanish merchant," and left issue.

[Pages 152-153]
      Beverley, Peter, of Gloucester county, eldest son of Maj. Robert Beverley of Middlesex county, the councillor and patriot, was born probably about the year 1668. In 1691, soon after his coming of age, he was appointed clerk of the house of burgesses and held that office until the year 1700, when he was elected a member of the house from Gloucester county. He evidently soon attained prominence, for from 1702 to 1714, he was speaker of the assembly, and in the former year, the house, as a token of their esteem and gratitude voted him an annuity of 10,00 pounds of tobacco. From 1710 to 1723, he was treasurer of Virginia, elected by the house of burgesses. On May 23, 1716, Gov. Spotswood recommended for the position of auditor general, John Robinson or Peter Beverley, the latter of whom had been for several years speaker, and was then the country's treasurer. Writing again on Jul 3, Spotswood said that he intended to appoint as auditor pro tem Col. Peter Beverley. On April 9, 1719, the lords of trade recommended to the King that "Peter Beverley, a gentleman of good estate and abilities, of fair character and well affected to his majesty's person and government," should be appointed a member of the Virginia council. On June 20, 1720, the appointment was made. Col. Beverley remained a member until his death, his last appearance, as noted in the journal, being June 13, 1728, in which year he died. Besides the offices already mentioned as held by him, were those of visitor of William and Mary College and surveyor general of Virginia. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Maj. Robert Peyton, who was grandson of Sir Edward Peyton, of Isleham, county Kent, England, and left issue.

[Page 153]
      Robinson, John, President of the council and acting governor (q. v.).

[Pages 153-154]
      Carter, John, was the eldest son of Robert Carter of "Corotoman," Lancaster county. He was a student at the Middle Temple and, in 1722, was a barrister at law at the Inns of Court. On June 23, 1722 Spotswood wrote to the lords of trade recommending "Mr. John Carter, eldest son of one of the council, and barrister at law in the Middle Temple, and a native of Virginia" for the position of solicitor of Virginia affairs in England. This position was obtained by Mr. Carter had held by him until the next year, when, being appointed to the office of secretary of state of Virginia, he returned there. On Nov. 1, 1723, Gov. Drysdale recommends the then secretary to fill a vacancy in the council. His father was already a councillor and if the affinity of father and son was too close to be allowed, he then recommended John Grymes, the King's receiver general, though his own inclinations were for Mr. Carter. On Jan. 17, 1723-24, Lord Orkney, governor of Virginia, recommended to the lords of trade that John Carter Esquire. be appointed to the council to succeed Wm. Bassett, deceased. On Jan. 23, the King made the appointment and on April 25, 1724, Carter took his seat. Not long after this Carter obtained the position of secretary, for which, as was frequently done, he is said to have paid a large price. The great power attaching to this office came under discussion during Carter's incumbency and Gov. Drysdale laid before the lords of trade the fact that the secretary had the appointment of the several county clerks and, in virtue of their membership in the house of burgesses, the virtual appointment of one half of that body which would be thus largely devoted to his interest. He expressly stipulated that he was not reflecting upon the actions of the present secretary, but merely desired to lay before then this great change from the ancient constitution. In a letter dated Jan. 22, 1726-27, to the Duke of Newcastle, Carter defends his own actions in the matter. Carter seems to have been a regular attendant at the meetings of the council until 1741. His death occurred April 30, 1743.

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      Fitzwilliams, Richard, first appears in the Virginia records on Aug. 13, 1717, when he petitioned the council for the grant of a lot of land in Hampton. This was doubtless his residence, as in April of the next year he was described as collector of the lower district of the James river. Some years later, probably 1725, he was appointed surveyor general of the colonies in America, and on July 22 of that year, the lords justices, the King being then out of England, referred to the board of plantations and trade, a petition from Fitzwilliams in which he asks that he may be added to the councils of Virginia and South Carolina. On Dec. 15, 1725, took his seat in the Virginia council, and on Dec. 14, 1727, was appointed by the governor one of the commissioners to settle the dispute regarding the boundary with North Carolina. He appears to have been often absent from Virginia as his duties called him to the other colonies and to England, but the records show him to have been occasionally present in council and for the last time in 1730. He probably died in 1732 in England, when his successor was appointed, but nothing further appears regarding him in the records.

[Page 154]
      Grymes, John, of "Brandon," Middlesex county, was a son of John Grymes of "Grymesby," in the same county and was born in 1692. He was educated at William and Mary College and his first public office was that of justice of the peace for Middlesex, to which office he was appointed at an early age. On Nov. 22, 1716, the governor informed the council that Mr. John Grymes had presented him with a deputation from Wm. Blathwayt, auditor general of the American colonies, appointing him deputy auditor for Virginia, in the place of Philip Ludwell. This commission did not appear to the governor to be drawn in sufficiently legal form to entitle Mr. Grymes to act, but he stated that he would supply the defects as far as possible, and Grymes took the oath of office. He still held the position in 1719 and in 1721. In 1720, he was a member of the house of burgesses and in 1723, was receiver general. On Nov. 1, 1723, Gov. Drysdale recommended John Grymes, the King's receiver general, for appointment to the council and two years later repeated it. Upon the latter occasion, the appointment was made and, on May 3, 1726, Grymes took his seat. He was a regular attendant until 1747. He died November 2, 1748. He married Lucy, daughter of Hon. Philip Ludwell, of "Greenspring," James City county, and left issue.

[Page 154]
      Blair, James, D. D., president of the council and acting governor (q. v.).

[Pges 154-155]
      Dandridge, William, of "Elsing Green," King William county, and his brother, Col. John Dandridge, of New Kent, were the progenitors of the Dandridge family in Virginia. The first notice on record of Col. William Dandridge is under date of July 21, 1712, when he chartered his vessel to the governor of North Carolina to carry twenty soldiers to Charleston. At this time he seems to have been a merchant and ship owner at Hampton, Elizabeth City county, as on Jan. 23, 1713, he was allowed to build a wharf opposite to his lots in that town, and in 1717, he is said to have built a house and wharf there. On May 31, 1727, the King appointed William Dandridge a member of the council, in the place of Philip Ludwell, deceased, and on Dec. 4 of the same year, the governor appointed him one of the commissioners to settle the boundary line between Virginia and North Carolina. In 1738, Dandridge was given command of his majesty's sloop "Wolf," and in 1741 was transferred to the "South Sea," forty guns, in which he served in Oglethorpe's attack on St Augustine, and Admiral Vernon's on Carthagena. In the last mentioned service he especially distinguished himself. Later he commanded the "Ludlow Castle," man-of-war. Dandridge died in 1743 in Hanover county. His brother, Col. John Dandridge, was the father of Mrs. Martha Washington.