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Alexander, Edmund B., born in Prince William county, Virginia, September 2, 1802; graduated at West Point in 1823. He served on the frontier and on garrison duty for twenty years. In the Mexican war he won distinction at Cerro Gordo, Contreras and Cherubusco, and was brevetted major and lieutenant-colonel. He was afterward major of the Eighth Infantry, November 10, 1857, and colonel of the Tenth Infantry, March 3, 1855. He commanded the Utah expedition of 1857-58 until relieved by Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston. In the civil war he was provost marshal of St. Louis, chief disbursing officer for Missouri, and superintendent of the volunteer recruiting service at St. Louis. He was brevetted brigadier-general March 13, 1865, and commanded at Fort Snelling, Minnesota, until February 22, 1869, when he was placed on the retired list after fifty years' service. He removed to Washington, D. C., where he died January 3, 1888.
Ramsay, George Douglas, was born in Dumfries, Virginia, February 21, 1801, son of Andrew and Catherine (Graham) Ramsay, grandson of Patrick and Elizabeth (Poythress) Ramsay and of Richard and Jane (Brent) Graham. Patrick Ramsay emigrated from Glasgow, Scotland, to Virginia, and settled in Bristol Parish. He returned to Scotland prior to the revolution, and after his death, in 1791, his widow brought her sons to Alexandria, Virginia, where they followed mercantile pursuits. George Douglas Ramsay was graduated from the United States Military Academy, and promoted second lieutenant, light artillery, July 1, 1820; was transferred to the First Artillery on the reorganization of the army, June 1, 1821; and promoted first lieutenant, March 1, 1826. He served as adjutant of the First Artillery, 1833-35; as assistant ordnance officer at Washington, D. C., in 1835, and was promoted captain and transferred to the ordnance department, February 25, 1835, serving as commandant of the New York, Washington, Frankford, and Augusta arsenals. He was married, September 23, 1830, to Frances Whetcroft, daughter of Thomas and Frances (Whetcroft) Monroe, of Washington, D. C.; his wife died April 22, 1835. He was married (second) June 28, 1838, to Eliza Rae, daughter of Thomas Gales, of Louisiana. He was ordnance officer at Corpus Christi and Point Isabel in the military occupation of Texas, 1845-46, and in the battle of Monterey, where he was brevetted major, for gallant conduct. He was chief of ordnance of Gen. Taylor's army, 1847-48; commandant of the Frankford, Fort Munroe, St. Louis and Washington arsenals, 1848-61; and was promoted major, April 22, 1861; lieutenant-colonel, August 3, 1861; and colonel June 1, 1863. He commanded the arsenal at Washington, D. C., 1861-63; served as chief of ordnance of the United States army with headquarters at Washington, 1863-64; was promoted brigadier-general, and made chief of ordnance of the United States army, September 15, 1863, and retired by age limit, September 12, 1864. He was inspector of arsenals, 1864-66; commanded the Washington arsenal, 1866-70; was brevetted major-general, U. S. A., March 13, 1865, for long and faithful services, and was a member of the examining board. He died in Washington, D. C., May 23, 1882.
Barron, Samuel, was born in Virginia, about 1802, son of Commodore Samuel Barron, U. S. N., entered the navy as a midshipman; lieutenant, March, 3, 1827; commander, July 15, 1847; captain in 1855. When the civil war broke out he was appointed chief of the bureau of detail, but had already accepted a commission as commodore in the Confederate navy, and superintendency of the defenses of North Carolina and Virginia. He was in command at the surrender of Forts Clark and Hatteras, August 28, 1861, and was one of the prisoners sent to New York. An exchange was effected in 1862, after which he went to England, and engaged in fitting out blockade runners and privateers. At the close of the war he settled on a farm in Virginia. He died February 20, 1888.
Powell, Levin Minn, was born at Winchester, Virginia, April 21, 1803, son of Alfred Harrison and Sidney (Thruston) Powell; grandson of Col. Levin and Sarah (Harrison) Powell; great-grandson of William and Eleanor (Peyton) Powell. His grandfather, Levin (1737-1810), raised and equipped the Sixteenth Virginia Regiment; served through the Valley Forge campaign, and was a Federalist representative in the Sixth United States congress, 1749-1801. Levin Minn Powell was appointed midshipman in the United States navy, March 1, 1817; assigned to the Franklin, and was engaged in suppressing piracy in the Mediterranean and china seas, the Gulf of Mexico and the West Indies. He was promoted lieutenant, April 28, 1826; commanded several expeditions against the Indians in the Seminole war; was wounded in a fight with them on the Jupiter river in January, 1837; received the thanks f the navy department for his services in Florida, and commanded two surveying expeditions on the eastern coasts and harbors of the Gulf of Mexico. He was promoted commander, June 24, 1843; was made assistant inspector of ordnance in October, 1843, and continued on ordnance duty until 1849. He commanded the sloop John Adams on the coast of South America and Africa, 1849-50; served as executive officer of the United States navy yard at Washington, D. C., 1851-54, and commanded the flag-ship Potomac on a cruise in the North Atlantic and West Indies, 1854-56. He was promoted captain, September 14, 1855; served as inspector of contract steamers in 1858, and as captain of the frigate Potomac, in the Gulf squadron, 1861-62, having been retired December 21, 1861, six months before he left his ship. He was promoted commodore on the retired list, July 16, 1862; served as inspector of the third lighthouse district, 1862-66; on special service, 1867-72, and was promoted rear-admiral on the retired list, May 13, 1869. He died in Washington, D. C., January 15, 1885.
Summers, George Washington, born in Fayette county, Virginia, March 4, 1804; completed preparatory studies and was graduated from Ohio University of Virginia; studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1827; began practice in Kanawha, Virginia; member of the state house of delegates, 1830-40; elected as a Whig to the twenty-seventh and twenty-eighth congresses (March 4, 1841-March 3, 1845); delegate to the state constitutional convention in 1850; Whig candidate for governor in 1851; judge of the eighteenth judicial circuit of Virginia, 1852-58; member of the famous peace congress of 1861; the convention was called at the recommendation of the Virginia legislature for the purpose of effecting a general and permanent pacification; it adopted what became known as the "Guthrie Plan," named from its sponsor, Hon. James Guthrie, of Kentucky, which provide that neither the constitution or any amendment thereof should be construed to give power to congress to interfere with the status of persons held to service in labor as it now exists in any of the territory lying south of thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes. As this action materially departed from the terms of Mr. Crittenden's compromise resolutions and neither defined the meaning of the word "status" nor used the word slave, many of the Southern members deemed it ambiguous, and a majority of the Virginia delegation refused to vote for Mr. Guthrie's propositions. On being reported to the senate they were rejected by a large vote, and in the house of representatives the speaker was refused permission to present them. Nevertheless, in the Virginia convention Mr. Summers afterward supported them in a strong speech, as the best means of pacification. They were still pending when Lincoln called for troops, whereupon Mr. Summers signed the ordinance of secession and afterwards gave his best efforts to the Southern cause. He died in September, 1868.
Dabney, William C., born in Charlottesville, Virginia, July 4, 1849. He graduated from the University of Virginia with the degree of Doctor of Medicine, in 1868, and entered upon practice in his native county (Albemarle), eventually locating in Charlottesville. In 1886, following the resignation of Professor Harrison from the chair of medicine in the University of Virginia, Dr. Dabney was appointed to the vacancy, and served in that position with signal ability until his death, August 20, 1894. He was a distinguished authority on several subjects in the medical profession, and made many contributions to medical literature, the most important of which were: "Medical Chemistry," the Boylston Prize Essay; "Nitrite of Amyl as an Antidote to Chloroform;" "Development of Connective Tissue;" "Extirpation of Kidney for Renal Calculus;" "Physiological and Pathological Effects of Excessive Soil Moisture;" "Choleate of Soda in Biliary Lithiasis;" "Contributions to the Histology of Epithelial New Formations;" "Disturbances of Nutrition Consecutive to Nerve Lesions." Dr. Dabney married, March 16, 1869, Jane Bell Minor, daughter of William W. Minor. Sr., of Albemarle county, Virginia.
Ryland, Robert, born in King and Queen county, Virginia, March 14, 1805, son of Josiah Ryland and Catherine (Peachy) Ryland, his wife. He was licensed as a Baptist preacher in 1825, and ordained in 1827. After studying in classical schools he was graduated in 1826 from Columbian University, Washington, D. C. For five years he was pastor at Lynchburg. In 1832 he took charge of the Manual Labor School at Richmond, known as the Virginia Baptist Seminary, and in 1840, when it became Richmond College, he was made president. Meanwhile, in 1834-36, he was chaplain of the University of Virginia. In 1866 he resigned his college presidency, and for twenty-five years was pastor of the First African Baptist Church, of Richmond, during which time he baptized 3,800 persons. In 1868 he went to Kentucky, where he conducted female schools and preached in country churches. He died in Lexington, Kentucky, April 23, 1899. His son, William S. Ryland, was president of Lexington Female College, and later of Bethel College.
Faulkner, Charles James, born in Martinsburg, Virginia, July 6, 1806; was graduated from Georgetown (D. C.) University in 1822; attended Chancellor Tucker's law lectures in Winchester; was admitted to the bar in 1829, and entered upon practice. He was a member of the state house of delegates in 1832-33; was a commissioner on the disputed Virginia-Maryland boundary; was a state senator. 1841-44, but resigned; was elected to the thirty-second congress, March 4, 1851, and to the two succeeding congresses. In 1859 he was appointed minister to France by President Buchanan. He returned at the outbreak of the civil war, in 1861, and was taken and held as a prisoner of war, but in December of the same year was exchanged for Congressman Ely, of New York. During the war he was a member of the staff of Gen. "Stonewall" Jackson. After the war he was engaged in various railroad enterprises. He was a member of the West Virginia constitutional convention in 1872, and was elected from that state, as a Democrat, to the forty-fourth congress (March 4, 1875-March 3, 1877). He died in Boydville, West Virginia, November 1, 1884.
Conrad, Charles M., born at Winchester, Virginia, about 1804. In his infancy his parents removed to Mississippi and then to Louisiana. He received a liberal education, studied law, was admitted to the Louisiana bar in 1828, and practiced in New Orleans. For several years he was a member of the state legislature; and was elected to the United States senate to fill the unexpired term of Alexander Mouton, resigned, and served from April 14, 1842, to March 3, 1843. He was a member of the state constitutional convention of 1844, was elected to congress in 1848, and served till August, 1850, when he was appointed secretary of war by President Fillmore, serving as such from August 13, 1850, to March 7, 1853. He was a leader of the secession movement in Louisiana in December, 1860, and was a delegate from Louisiana to the provisional congress held in Montgomery, Alabama, in 1861. He was a member of the first and second congresses of the Confederacy, and from 1862 to 1864 served in the Confederate army as brigadier-general. He died in New Orleans, Louisiana, February 11, 1878.
Brownlow, William Gannaway, born in Wythe county, Virginia, August 29, 1805. Early orphaned, he had to make his own way in life, and by working as a carpenter paid his way in school, and acquired a fair education. He became a Methodist minister and for several years after 1826, travelled extensively through Tennessee and South Carolina preaching, at the same time taking an active part in politics, and in South Carolina he made himself obnoxious by his opposition to nullification. In 1838 he became editor of the "Knoxville (Tennessee) Whig," in which he so unsparingly criticised his political opponents, that he gained the sobriquet of "the fighting parson." In 1843 he was a candidate for congress, and was defeated by Andrew Johnson. In 1850, under appointment by President Fillmore, he was one of the government commissioners on the improvement of western rivers. In 1858 he published a work which had a large vogue "The Great Iron Wheel Examined and its Spokes Extracted," being an answer to "The Great Iron Wheel, or Republicanism backwards, and Christianity Reversed," published two years before by Rev. J. R. Graves, a Baptist minister, and editor. In 1858, in Philadelphia, in a public discussion with Rev. A. Prynne, of New York, he upheld slavery as divinely right, as well as expedient. In 1860, nevertheless, he took a prominent stand against secession. He refused to remove the United States flag from his house or office, or to take the oath of allegiance to the Confederate government, and in October, 1861, his paper was suppressed, and he left the state, passing over into North Carolina. In December of the same year he returned, was arrested on a charge of treason, when he was released from jail, but held under guard in his home until March, 1862, when he was sent into the Union lines at Nashville, his presence in the Confederacy being held as dangerous to the new government. He delivered speeches in advocacy of the Federal cause, in the principal cities of the north, until 1864, when he returned to Tennessee, and the next year, with the aid of the negro vote, was elected governor under the military state government. During his administration the people sought relief from his rule by establishing the "Ku Klux Klan," and disturbances arose, and in his endeavor for suppression, he declared martial law in several counties. In 1867 he had the aid of the United States troops to carry into effect the hated reconstruction law, disfranchising the whites in Nashville, where resistance was made by the mayor. In 1869 he was elected to the United States senate, and he resigned as governor, sold his newspaper, and confined himself to his senatorial duties. At the end of his term, he returned to Knoxville, and again became its editor. In 1862 he published a volume,"Rise, Progress and Decline of Secession." He died at Knoxville, April 29, 1877.
Ammen, Jacob, born in Botetourt county, Virginia, January 7, 1808. He was graduated at West Point in 1831, and served there as assistant instructor in mathematics, and afterward of infantry tactics until August 31, 1832. During the threatened "nullification" of South Carolina he was on duty in Charleston harbor. From October 4, 1834, to November 5, 1837, he was again at West Point as an instructor, and he resigned from the army November 30, 1837, to accept a professorship of mathematics at Bacon College Georgetown, Kentucky. Thence he went to Jefferson College, Washington, Mississippi, in 1839, to the University of Indiana in 1840, to Jefferson College again in 1843, and returned to Bacon College in 1848. From 1855 to 1861 he was a civil engineer at Ripley, Ohio, and on April 18 of that year became captain of the Twelfth Ohio Volunteers. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel May 2, and participated in the West Virginia campaign (June and July) under McClellan, where the first considerable Federal successes of the war were gained. After the campaigns in Tennessee and Mississippi he was promoted to be brigadier-general of volunteers, July 16, 1862, and was in command of camps of instruction in Ohio and Illinois until December 16, 1863. From April 10, 1864, to January 14, 1865, when he resigned, he was in command of the district of East Tennessee.
Cranch, Christopher Pearce, born at Alexandria, Virginia, March 8, 1813, son of Judge William Cranch, of the circuit court of Washington, a jurist of eminence, and for many years reporter for the United States supreme court. He was intended for the ministry, and studied at the Harvard Theological Seminary, but his love for art and literature induced him to leave the ministry in 1842. He went to Italy and Paris, and remained there as a student, with a single visit to America, until 1863, when he returned home and located in New York. He soon achieved reputation as a landscape painter, and was elected to the National Academy in 1864. In his later years he practically abandoned painting, and devoted himself to letters. An early collection of poems, published in 1844, was the beginning of a long line of varied literary and poetical works. In addition to a translation of the Æneid," he issued "Satan;" a libretto; a number of books for children, and many short poems. He died at Cambridge, Massachusetts, January 20, 1892.
Joynes, Levin Smith, born in Accomac county, Virginia, May 13, 1819, son of Judge William Thomas Joynes, of the Virginia court of appeals. He was educated in the private schools of his neighborhood, and entered Washington College, Pennsylvania, from which he was graduated in 1835. He then entered the University of Virginia, and was graduated therefrom in 1839 with the degree of Doctor of Medicine. After leaving the university, he traveled abroad and studied in Paris and Dublin, and upon his return home began the practice of his profession in his native county. In 1844 he removed to Baltimore, and in 1846 was elected professor of physiology and medical jurisprudence in the Franklin Medical College of Philadelphia. In 1849 he returned to accomac county, Virginia, and in 1855 was elected professor of medicine at the Medical College of Richmond. In 1857 he was elected dean of the faculty of that college, which position he held until 1871, when he resigned and was elected emeritus professor. In 1872 he was made secretary of the state board of health, a position in which he did much towards the putting of the board of health upon a successful basis. Dr. Joynes was a learned physician and enjoyed an extensive practice in the city of his adoption. He contributed constantly to the medical journals of his day. He died in Richmond, January 18, 1881.
Jones, Tiberius Gracchus, born in Powhatan county, Virginia, in 1819, son of Wood Jones, of Nottoway county, Virginia, and his wife, Elizabeth Trent (Archer) Jones, the former named a kinsman of John Winston Jones, speaker of the house of representatives, and the latter a member of the well known family of Archer. After completing his preparatory education, he entered Richmond College, and in 1842 matriculated at the University of Virginia, where he remained for one session, then became a student at William and Mary College, where he received the honor, which he had also received at the University of Virginia, of being the valedictory orator of the literary society. He held many positions of responsibility and was regarded as a strong preacher, a learned writer and a sound thinker. He was elected president of Wakeforest College, North Carolina, and of Mercer College, Georgia, which positions he declined, and he was also elected president of Richmond College. Among his well known works are: "The Duties of Pastors to Churches," and the "Great Misnomer, the Lord's Supper Called the Communion." At the time of his death he was a resident of Nashville, Tennessee.
Dabney, Robert Lewis, was born in Louisa county, Virginia, March 5, 1820. He studied at Hampden-Sidney College and later graduated from the University of Virginia in 1842. He taught for two years and then entered the Union Theological Seminary in Virginia, was licensed to preach in 1846, ordained by the Lexington presbytery in July, 1847, and became pastor of Tinkling Spring Church in Augusta county, Virginia, where he remained for six years. In 1853 he accepted the professorship of church history in Union Seminary, Virginia, and remained until 1883, except during the civil war, when he was actively engaged in the Confederate service as chaplain of the Eighteenth Virginia Regiment, and afterward as chief-of-staff to Gen. T. J. Jackson. In 1883 he was elected to the chair of moral philosophy in the University of Texas. The degree of D. D. was conferred upon him by Hampden-Sidney College in 1853, and that of LL. D. by the Southwestern Presbyterian University, Tennessee, in 1877, and simultaneously by Hampden-Sidney College. Besides being a voluminous contributor to periodical literature Dr. Dabney published "Life of /rev. Dr. F. S. Sampson" (Richmond, 1854); "Life of T. J. (Stonewall) Jackson" (London, 1864); "Sacred Rhetoric" (Richmond, 1866); "Defence of Virginia and the South" (New York, 1868); "Sensualistic Philosophy of the Nineteenth Century Considered" (1876); "A Course of Systematic and Polemic Theology" (St. Louis, 1878); and "The Christian Sabbath" (Philadelphia, 1881).
Holmes, George Frederick, born at Demarara, British Guiana, in August, 1820. He was reared and educated in England, attending Durham University, and in 1838 emigrated from that country to the United States, his first occupation being that of teacher in schools in Virginia, Georgia and South Carolina. In the meantime he pursued a course of study in the law, and was admitted to the bar of South Carolina in 1842, but did not practice his profession for any length of time, resuming his work of teaching. Three years later, in 1848, after serving two years in a professional position in Richmond College, and one year as professor of history, political economy and international law at the College of William and Mary, he accepted the presidency of the University of Mississippi, remaining but a short period of time, teaching history, political economy and the evidences of Christianity, after which he returned to Virginia and engaged in literary work, his writings appearing principally in encyclopedias, reviews and magazines. In 1857, Professor Holmes was called to the chair of history and general literature at the University of Virginia, which had been established the previous year, and so continued until the year of his decease. In 1882 his work was reduced to the subject of historical science, including political economy, the creation of the school of English language and literature relieving him of the literature courses, and in 1889, upon the appointment of an adjunct professor of history, he taught classes only in political economy and the science of society. He was the author of a series of text-books especially designed for the use of southern schools readers, an English grammar, and a history of the United States. He also printed privately lectures on the science of society. He died November 4, 1897.
Allen, Henry Watkins, was born in Prince Edward county, Virginia, April 29, 1820. His father was a practicing physician and removed to Missouri, where the son was educated at the Marionville Collegiate Institute. He studied law, was admitted to the Mississippi bar and practiced his profession. In 1842 he responded to President Houston's call for volunteers to aid the people of Texas in their war with Mexico, and raised a company which he led. He returned to Grand Gulf, resumed practice, and was, in 1846, elected to the state legislature. He then engaged in sugar planting in West Baton Rouge, Louisiana, in 1853. The next year he took a legal course at Harvard College, and in 1859 started for Italy, intending to enlist with Garibaldi in his struggles for independence. On his arrival, the war being over, he made the tour of Europe, and returned home, where he again served in the state legislature. When Louisiana seceded he enlisted in the Confederate army and was made lieutenant-colonel. He was soon promoted to be colonel of the Fourth Louisiana Regiment and military governor of Jackson, Mississippi. He was wounded at Shiloh and at Baton Rouge, where he commanded a brigade. At Vicksburg he did effective service. He was promoted brigadier-general in 1864, and the same year elected governor of Louisiana. In this capacity he organized a route of trade to the Mexican border and exchanged cotton for supplies needed in the state, which he sold to the people at moderate prices, besides giving to the poor. He also secured to the planters the right to pay the cotton tax imposed by the Confederate government in kind, and was largely engaged in preventing the manufacture and sale of liquor in the state. After the war he removed to the city of Mexico, and established the "Mexican Times." He died April 22, 1867.
Lewis, David Peter, born in Charlotte county, Virginia, about 1820, son of Peter C. and Mary Smith (Buster) Lewis, and of Welsh and English ancestry; during his childhood his parents removed to Madison county, Alabama, in the schools of which he received an excellent education, after which he studied law in Huntsville, Alabama, and later practiced his profession in Lawrence county, which he represented in the state constitutional convention of 1861; he voted against secession, but eventually signed the ordinance as passed; was elected to the Confederate provisional congress at Montgomery by the convention, but resigned his seat; in 1863 he was appointed judge of the circuit court of Alabama by Gov. Shorter, but after spending several months on the bench, he passed through the army lines and reached Nashville, Tennessee, where he remained until the close of the war; in 1865 he returned to Alabama, settled at Huntsville, and resumed the practice of his profession; was elected governor of Alabama on the Republican ticket, and served in that capacity from 1872 to 1874, inclusive; he died at Huntsville, Alabama, July 3, 1884.
Tucker, Nathaniel Beverley, generally known as Beverley Tucker), born in Winchester, Virginia, June 8, 1820, son of Henry St. George Tucker. He was educated at the University of Virginia. In 1853 he founded the Washington "Sentinel," and in the same year was made printer to the senate. He was appointed consul to Liverpool in 1857, and served as such till 1861. During the war he was made secret agent of the Confederate States, and in 1862 was sent by the Confederate government to England and France to obtain supplies, and in 1863-64 to Canada for a like purpose. He was included by President Johnson in his proclamation on the assassination of Lincoln, and a price was set on his head. In reply Tucker wrote to Johnson that he had better look nearer home, as the person profiting most by Lincoln's death was Johnson himself. He went to Mexico, where he remained until the downfall of Maximilian, when he returned and took up his residence in Washington City, and Berkeley Springs, West Virginia. He died in Richmond, July 4, 1890.
Page, John, was born at Rug Swamp, Hanover county, Virginia, April 26, 1821, son of Francis and Susan (Nelson) Page, and grandson of Gov. John Page and Gov. Thomas Nelson, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, and commander of the Virginia forces at Yorktown. During his boyhood he attended school at the home of Bishop Meade, in Frederick county, Virginia, and then attended Bristol College, Pennsylvania, and Newark College, Delaware. The year following the completion of his studies, he was a tutor at the Episcopal High School near Alexandria, and during this time he read law with Henry Winter Davis. In 1843 he entered the University of Virginia, graduating from that institution the following year with the degree of Bachelor of Law. He began the active practice of his profession in Hanover county, Virginia, and so continued, with a large degree of success for the remainder of his days. Upon the outbreak of the war between the states he enlisted in the Patrick Henry Rifles, a company formed his neighborhood, and which became distinguished as one of the constituent companies of the Fifteenth Virginia Regiment, and after the Peninsula campaign he received an appointment upon the staff of his brother-in-law, Gen. William N. Pendleton, chief of artillery of the Army of Northern Virginia. He was a Whig in politics, but the only political office he held was that of commonwealth's attorney. He was a lover of literature, and was thoroughly familiar with the Latin and Greek classics, as well as with those of his own tongue. He married, in 1846, Elizabeth Burwell Nelson, his cousin. Children: Rev. Dr. Frank Page, rector of St. John's Church, Brooklyn; Thomas Nelson Page, of Washington; Rosewell Page, of Richmond, Virginia. Mr. Page died at his home in Hanover county, Virginia, October 30, 1901.
Hughes, Robert William, born in Powhatan county, Virginia, June 16, 1821, and was reared by Mrs. General Carrington, daughter of General Carrington, daughter of General Francis Preston, of Abingdon. He was educated at Caldwell Institute, Greensboro, North Carolina, and was tutor in Bingham high school, Hillsboro, North Carolina, 1840-43. He was a practicing lawyer in Richmond, 1843-53; was editor of the "Richmond Examiner," 1850-57, in which he strongly favored secession, and joint editor of that paper from May, 1861, to April, 1865. Upon the close of the war he aligned himself with the Republican party, and edited first the "Richmond Republic," and afterwards the "Richmond Journal." In 1873 he was the Republican candidate for governor, and in January, 1874, he was by President Grant commissioned United States district judge for the eastern district of Virginia, in which position he served with marked ability and distinction till February 22, 1898, when, owing to his advanced age, he tendered his resignation. On June 4, 1850, at the governor's mansion in Richmond, he married Eliza M. Johnston, daughter of Hon. Charles C. Johnston, and Eliza Mary Preston, niece of General Joseph E. Johnston. For many years he occupied as a summer home his fine estate, about three miles southeast of Abingdon. He was the author of biographies of General Floyd and General Joseph E. Johnston, published in "Lee and his Lieutenants," 1867; a volume entitled "The American Dollar," 1885, and of five volumes of United States circuit and district court reports, entitled "Hughes' Reports, 1789-1885." In 1866 Judge Hughes fought a duel with William E. Cameron, afterwards governor of Virginia, which resulted in Cameron's receiving a broken rib at the first fire. He died December 10, 1901. His remains were interred in Sinking Spring Cemetery, Abingdon, Virginia.